Veerkracht: hoe stress en problemen je sterker kunnen maken
Preference Inferences from Eye-Related Cues in Sales-Consumer Settings

Preference Inferences from Eye-Related Cues in Sales-Consumer Settings

Past physiological evidence, indicates that inferences on the mind of another person (i.e., goals, intentions, beliefs), is a well-defined brain process characterized by specific temporal and spatial properties. This study investigated brain responses during passive viewing (consumers’ role) of branded products (i.e., chocolates, chips, non alcoholic beverages) and preference inferences (sales consultants’ role) from eye-related information. Using EEG methods, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants passively viewed pictures of branded products versus when they tried to infer others’ product preferences from eye-related information. ERP amplitudes were examined in two time windows, corresponding to the P3 component and the late positive potential (LPP). Dissimilar brain responses were found for preference inferences compared to passively viewingfor the P3 and LPPcomponents. P3 and LPP amplitudes were greater for preference inferences compared to passive viewing. In addition, enhance P3 and LPP amplitudes were found for preference inferences compared to passive viewing for the High Inferring Performance (HI) as opposed to the Low Inferring Performance (LI) group. Finally, enhanced posterior P3 and LPP amplitudes……

Social Neuromarketing: The role of social context in measuring advertising effectiveness

Social Neuromarketing: The role of social context in measuring advertising effectiveness

Sociale Neuromarketing: de rol van de sociale context bij het meten van de effectiviteit van reclame boodschappen.   In this dissertation, to examine how social processes influence consumers’ cognitive responses to advertisement, I focus on the following key constructs: attention, emotion and memory. The different chapters in my dissertation all reflect upon the interaction between physiological processes, biological markers, personality traits and social context. Free Full Text ( Final Version, 1mb )  …

Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

Understanding Salesforce Behavior using Genetic Association Studies

Het gedrag van de salesforce proberen te begrijpen op basis van genetische associatie studies   Abstract Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of the contemporary sales professional. Coming from transaction-based selling and passing through an era of consultative selling sales strategies, we observe an emerging role for sales professionals as knowledge brokers. Indeed, sales professionals are crucial in linking different parties both within and outside their firm, creating a flow of knowledge between different members of the network. In line with this, salespeople should be able to shift their strategies from a short-term focus on the (immediate) sale, to a more long-term and customer-centred approach aimed on opportunity identification. The results presented in this thesis suggest that some sales professionals have an innate tendency to make an active effort to spot novel opportunities to help solve customers’ needs. To……

Neurale mechanismen van sociale intelligentie in relatie tot de prestaties van verkoopmanagers

Neurale mechanismen van sociale intelligentie in relatie tot de prestaties van verkoopmanagers

Identifying the drivers of salespeople’s performance, strategies and moral behavior have been under the scrutiny of marketing scholars for many years. The functioning of the drivers of salespeople’s behaviors rests on processes going on in the minds of salespeople. However, research to date has used methods based only on verbal self-reports. Advances in techniques from neuroscience such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) suggest that despite their complexity and relative inaccessibility, mental processes can be measured more directly. Theory of Mind and mirror neurons are two mechanisms that operate at an automatic or reflexive level, and are important drivers of social intelligence. We use fMRI and field studies to investigate how individual differences in de functioning of these social intelligence mechanisms relate to the job performance and ethical orientations of salespeople. In addition, we use fMRI to analyse the psychometric properties of scales. Our results show that when salespeople are presented with social stimuli during fMRI, they display individual differences in the amount of neurological processing in regions that play……

Mood configurations and their relationship to immune system responses

Mood configurations and their relationship to immune system responses

Analyzing data on 2, 057 healthy subjects in the Dutch Lifelines database we explore the relationship between immune system responses, thyroid hormone functioning and people’s mood that is expected to be moderated by social support. We focus (1) on the innate immune system cell count: monocytes, eosinophil granulocytes, basophilic granulocytes, neutrophil granulocytes; and thrombocytes; and (2) on the adaptive immune system cell count: lymphocytes (T, B and NK cells). Moods were measured on the positive (PA) and negative (NA) dimensions of the PANAS scale, divided in four groups based on their PA and NA median scores: hedonic, positive mood, negative mood and anhedonic. We focus further on (3) thyroid cells: T3 and T4; and (4) on social support. We found significant differences between mood groups and mean cell counts for basophilic granulocytes and thrombocytes but not for monocytes, eosinophil granulocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the innate immune system. However, in the adaptive immune system we found mean lymphocyte cell counts to be different in all four mood groups. We also……

Framing a Trust Game as a Power Game Greatly affects Interbrain Synchronicity between Trustor and Trustee

Framing a Trust Game as a Power Game Greatly affects Interbrain Synchronicity between Trustor and Trustee

We used dual electroencephalography (EEG) to measure brain activity simultaneously in pairs of trustors and trustees playing a 15-round trust game framed as a “trust game” versus a “power game”. Four major findings resulted: first, earnings in each round were higher in the trust than in the power game. Second, in the trust game, reaction time for strategic deliberations was significantly longer for the trustee than the trustor. In the power game, however, the trustee took longer to think about how much money to repay, whereas the trustor took longer to think about how much money to invest. Third, prediction accuracy for the amount exchanged was higher in the trust game than in the power game. Fourth, interbrain synchronicity gauged with the phase-locking value of alpha bands in the brain – especially the frontal and central regions – was higher in the power game than in the trust game. We infer that this last finding reflects elevated mutual strategic deliberation in the power game. These behavioral and neuroscience-based findings give……

Het verkopen van kennis over het belang van kennishabitats, kennisbrokering en het ontwikkelen van wjsheid

Het verkopen van kennis over het belang van kennishabitats, kennisbrokering en het ontwikkelen van wjsheid

In onze huidige kenniseconomie verdienen veel mensen hun geld door als trusted advisor hun kennis te verkopen aan cliënten. Centraal in dit proces staat de kennisoverdracht of kennistransfer, die impliceert dat de hedendaagse kenniswerker zijn cliënt en diens organisatie slimmer maakt, maar ook dat hij daar zelf op zijn beurt eveneens slimmer van wordt. Slimmer maken is niet hetzelfde als manipuleren of beïnvloeden: bij die laatste activiteiten maak je gebruik van iemands zwakten, terwijl een trusted advisor zijn cliënt juist wijst op diens zwakten en hem helpt er beter mee om te gaan. Met dit boek laat Willem Verbeke zien aan welke eisen professionals als kenniswerkers moeten voldoen om succes te hebben. Kennis zit vervat in zogeheten habitats en het is belangrijk dat kenniswerkers zich in de hogere kleilagen van kennishabitats kunnen nestelen. Aan de hand van cases en praktijkvoorbeelden laat Verbeke zien hoe kenniswerkers dat doel kunnen bereiken, en op die manier zowel zichzelf als hun cliënten vooruit kunnen helpen. Uiteindelijk, zo toont Verbeke aan, is voor het verkopen……

Why Some People Just “Can’t Get No Satisfaction”: Secure versus Insecure Attachment Styles Affect One’s “Style of Being in the Social World”

Why Some People Just “Can’t Get No Satisfaction”: Secure versus Insecure Attachment Styles Affect One’s “Style of Being in the Social World”

We first seek to explore the relationship between attachment styles of professional financial service customers and their ability to experience customer satisfaction and build relationships with a commercial bank. Secure attached people identify with the commercial bank, feel satisfied and are loyal with the commercial bank. Second, we question whether attachment styles and degrees of satisfaction are also reflected in a capacity to feel pleasure in attachments to luxury products, feel happiness and pro-activeness, develop positive relationships with others, and sleep well for multiple samples of non-commercial customers. Apparently, secure attached people form enjoyable attachments with luxury goods/brands. Equally, in life in general they show a proactive attitude and generosity toward others, and feel low envy. Anxious attachment style relates negatively with appraisal of and relationship formation with commercial banks, negatively with enjoyment and attachment to luxury goods, and negatively with generosity towards people and happiness. In addition, anxious attachment style relates positively with envy towards people and low sleep quality. Avoidant attachment style does not relate with any of……

Sales Presentation Anxiety, Cortisol Levels, Self-Reports, and Gene-Gene Interactions

Sales Presentation Anxiety, Cortisol Levels, Self-Reports, and Gene-Gene Interactions

We study sales presentation anxiety (SPA) using multilevel analysis of a quasi-natural field experiment: the final exam of an executive training course where sales professionals (n = 128) compete in teams to present an account plan to a critical audience who then ask questions and evaluate their performance. The best team is announced the winner of the competition. Compared to pre-presentation levels, overall cortisol (C) levels first increased after the question period and subsequently decreased 20 and 50 minutes after, indicating a relatively fast recovery rate. Negative significant correlations were found between self-reported experience of stress and C levels in periods 3 and 4 which might indicate affect labeling, a coping technique that focuses on the underlying physiological response. Using two candidate genes, DRD2 and DRD4 , we investigated associations between C levels in the four periods. Carriers of DRD2 Taq A1 + and DRD4 7R + alleles had lower C levels compared to non-carriers, both right after the question period and 20 minutes later which might indicate flexibility in……

A field experiment on financial incentives for short and long term gym attendance

A field experiment on financial incentives for short and long term gym attendance

This paper presents a field experiment to analyze whether financial incentives, conditional on attending the gym, can increase gym attendance of members of an off-campus gym both in the short run (two quarters of a year) and in the long run (the next two quarters of the year). The incentivized subjects received a rebate of approximately 10% of the average membership fee conditional on attending the gym at least once per week in 11 of the 13 weeks of the first quarter of 2010. In the second quarter of 2010 the incentive was repeated, allowing subjects a second chance to earn a rebate. In both quarters they received a rebate of €25 instead of €15 conditional on attending the gym at least twice a week in 11 of the 13 weeks. Gym attendance was recorded both during the intervention period, and during the two quarters after. We compared the conditional incentive to attend the gym with an unconditional incentive where subjects would receive the 10% rebate per quarter merely for……

Nieuwsgierig leiderschap een ontdekkingstocht naar de persoon achter de leider

Nieuwsgierig leiderschap een ontdekkingstocht naar de persoon achter de leider

In de huidige kenniseconomie is een onderneming succesvol als er heterogene kennis wordt verzameld, geselecteerd en omgebouwd tot een voor de klant waardevolle oplossing. Volgens Willem Verbeke zijn het de nieuwsgierige leiders die het beste in staat zijn deze taken op zich te nemen en op die manier ondernemingen winstgevend(er) te maken. Een nieuwsgierig leider kenmerkt zich doordat hij openstaat voor nieuwe ontwikkelingen en ideeën. Nieuwsgierige leiders zijn een tikje recalcitrant en kunnen paradoxaal overkomen. Aan de andere kant dwingen hun nieuwsgierigheid en capaciteit om ideeën en observaties te combineren ook respect af. Slaagt een nieuwsgierig leider daarin, dan willen mensen in de onderneming blijvend met hem samenwerken. In Nieuwsgierig leiderschap leest u alles over wat een nieuwsgierig leider is. Ook kunt u aan de hand van oefeningen en vragenlijsten zelf nagaan of u er een bent, en zo nee, hoe u er een kunt worden!…

Moving in social circles: Social circle membership and performance implications
The role of key account programs, trust, and brand strength on resource allocation in the channel of distribution
Salesperson self-regulation of pride: Effects on adaptability, effort, and citizenship behaviors between independent-based and interdependent-based cultures
Social Consumer Neuroscience: Neurophysiological Measures of Advertising Effectiveness in a Social Context

Social Consumer Neuroscience: Neurophysiological Measures of Advertising Effectiveness in a Social Context

The application of neurophysiological methods to study the effects of advertising on consumer purchase behavior has seen an enormous growth in recent years. However, little is known about the role social settings have on shaping the human brain during the processing of advertising stimuli. To address this issue, we first review previous key findings of neuroscience research on advertising effectiveness. Next, we discuss traditional advertising research into the effects social context has on the way consumers experience advertising messages and explain why marketers, who aim to predict advertising effectiveness, should place participants in social settings, in addition to the traditional ways of studying consumer brain responses to advertising in social isolation. This article contributes to the literature by offering advertising researchers a series of research agendas on the key indicators of advertising effectiveness (attention, emotion, memory, and preference). It aims to improve understanding of the impact social context has on consumers\' neurophysiological responses to advertising messages. Full publication  …

Back to basics in selling discovering the neuro-economics behind the successful salesperson

Back to basics in selling discovering the neuro-economics behind the successful salesperson

Door professor Willem Verbeke Laatst werd ik door de Sales Educators’ Academy (SEA) op de Aston University in England uitgenodigd om de diner speech te geven over sales. Tijdens een dergelijk congres is het goed om te luisteren naar andere sprekers, uit zowel Europa als de VS, die verder best vooruitstrevend zijn bij het doen van onderzoek naar sales. Wat me opviel is de nieuwe nuchterheid rond sales die door veel sprekers benadrukt werd. Wat is die nieuwe nuchterheid?   De “het gaat veranderen goeroes” Als je als manager of als professor wil scoren op congressen dan hoor je je praatje te beginnen met de woorden: “Het gaat allemaal veranderen”. Zoals een spreker op het SEA opmerkte is dat best een aanstekelijke zinsnede en na enige tijd zeggen alle sprekers dat alles gaat veranderen. Ik noem ze graag de “het gaat veranderen goeroes” waarbij ik hoop dat de lezer hierbij een glimlach op zijn/haar gezicht krijgt. Overigens, als iemand die zin “het gaat veranderen” níet uitspreekt dan wordt diegene als……

Facial Attractiveness as a Function of Athletic Prowess
The Routledge Companion to the Future of Marketing

The Routledge Companion to the Future of Marketing

 Marketing has changed substantially in the last few years. With more and more research conducted in marketing and consumer behaviour fields, and technological advances and applications occurring on a regular basis, the future of marketing opens up a world of exciting opportunities. Going beyond a state-of-the-art view of the discipline, this innovative volume focuses on the advances being made in many different areas such as; critical thinking, new paradigms, novel conceptualisations, as well as key technological innovations with a direct impact on the theory and practice of marketing. Each chapter presents an expert overview, and an analytical and engaging discussion of the topic, as well as introducing a specific research agenda paving the way for the future. The Routledge Companion to the Future of Marketing provides the reader with a comprehensive set of visionary insights into the future of marketing. This prestigious collection aims to challenge the mindset of marketing scholars, transforming current thinking into new perspectives and advances in marketing knowledge. Chapter  6 Biomarketing: An emerging paradigm linking neuroscience,……

Minder discrimineren kun je leren!

Minder discrimineren kun je leren!

Hoe kunnen ondernemingen discriminatie tegen gaan? En hoe kunnen inzichten in de neurowetenschappen bijdragen om minder te leren discrimineren.…

Quick fix bestaat niet

Quick fix bestaat niet

Lees hier het artikel  …

Bepaalt BMI intelligentie?

Bepaalt BMI intelligentie?

De relatie tussen BMI en intelligentie Lees hier het volledige artikel  …

Beste verkopers hebben mensenkennis

Beste verkopers hebben mensenkennis

Beste verkopers hebben mensenkennis from willemverbeke…

Improving Diagnosis of Depression With XGBOOST Machine Learning Model and a Large Biomarkers Dutch Dataset (n = 11,081)

Improving Diagnosis of Depression With XGBOOST Machine Learning Model and a Large Biomarkers Dutch Dataset (n = 11,081)

Machine Learning has been on the rise and healthcare is no exception to that. In healthcare, mental health is gaining more and more space. The diagnosis of mental disorders is based upon standardized patient interviews with defined set of questions and scales which is a time consuming and costly process. Our objective was to apply the machine learning model and to evaluate to see if there is predictive power of biomarkers data to enhance the diagnosis of depression cases.   Read full article here…

Doeltreffend beïnvloeden - gebaseerd op inzichten van gedragseconomie en socio-neurowetenschappen

Doeltreffend beïnvloeden - gebaseerd op inzichten van gedragseconomie en socio-neurowetenschappen

Veel mensen denken dat ze bestand zijn tegen beïnvloeding. Maar je kunt niet niet beïnvloed worden. Elke dag zijn we bezig met beïnvloeden of zijn we onderhevig aan de beïnvloeding van iemand anders. Velen van ons doen dit vakmatig - bijvoorbeeld docenten, marketingprofessionals, politici en managers - maar ook iedereen die iemand wil overtuigen van een idee of de ongewenste gewoonten van een ander wil veranderen, probeert iemand te beïnvloeden. Maar hoe kun je dit doeltreffend doen? Hoe zorg je ervoor dat je het gedrag, de voorkeur of de aandacht van iemand werkelijk kunt beïnvloeden? Willem Verbeke en Lamar Qayoumi ontwikkelden zes \'bouwstenen\' waarmee iedereen kan leren om een individu of een groep effectief te beïnvloeden - of om een toegepaste beïnvloedingstechniek te herkennen en jezelf daar beter tegen te kunnen verweren. In Doeltreffend Beïnvloeden worden deze zes bouwstenen uitgebreid besproken en geïllustreerd met voorbeelden uit de praktijk. Tevens gaan de auteurs in op de drie afzonderlijke processen die een belangrijke rol spelen bij het beïnvloeden van een ander: elementaire,……

Het succesvol shapen van keyaccounts

Het succesvol shapen van keyaccounts

Succesvolle accountmanagers tonen leiderschap bij hun klanten: ze passen hun bedrijfsvoering niet aan die van de klant aan, maar selecteren en shapen hun klanten. Om dit doel te verwezenlijken behoren accountmanagers op onconventionele wijze aan accountplanning te doen en vervolgens via netwerken de leden van de buying center te beïnvloeden en te shapen. Verbeke legt duidelijk uit wat hij onder dit shapen verstaat en zet verschillende shapingtechnieken uiteen. Verder benadrukt hij dat shaping slechts mogelijk is door gebruik te maken van accountsystemen. Tot slot schenkt hij aandacht aan wat hij noemt street-smartness en aan emotionele competentie, beide essentiële vaardigheden van de hedendaagse accountmanager. Verbeke biedt met dit boek een verfrissende visie op het vak, waar geen enkele accountmanager aan voorbij zal kunnen gaan.…

Ik Netwerk Dus Ik Besta

Ik Netwerk Dus Ik Besta

Zelfinzicht en sociale intelligentie vormen de geheime kracht achter iedere succesvolle verkoper. Sociale intelligentie stelt verkopers in staat te kijken vanuit een ander perspectief: dat van de klant. Deze verkopers zijn als \'kennisbrokers\' die niet alleen haarfijn aanvoelen wát hun klanten nodig hebben maar ook waaróm. En dat is waar het om draait, want pas dan kun je als verkoper je klant echt een oplossing aanreiken. Sociale intelligentie is echter niet iets vanzelfsprekends. Succesvolle verkopers moeten voortdurend werken aan het verbeteren van hun sociale intelligentie. Geen sinecure, dus. Maar iedereen kan het leren! Dit boek laat zien hoe. De auteurs tonen hoe succesvolle verkopers hun sociale intelligentie ontwikkelen en hoe je dit zelf ook onder de knie kunt krijgen. Ze maken daarbij gebruik van wetenschappelijke inzichten uit de biologie, de psychologie en de sociale neurowetenschappen. De theorie wordt bovendien geïllustreerd door talloze anekdotes uit het leven van alledag, gecombineerd met praktische tips waardoor je je klant beter zult gaan begrijpen en effectiever kunt beïnvloeden.…

The Adaptive Consequences of Pride in Personal Selling

The Adaptive Consequences of Pride in Personal Selling

This study examines the adaptive consequences of pride in personal selling and its self-regulation with colleagues and customers. Study 1 investigates the effects of experiencing pride, where two benefits were found. First, pride increases salespersons \'performance-related motivations. Specifically, it promotes the use of adaptive selling strategies, greater effort, and self-efficacy. Second, pride positively affects organizational citizenship behaviors. Study 2 takes an emotion-process point of view and compares excessive pride (hubris) with positive pride. The results show that salespeople are capable of self-regulating the expression of these emotions differently toward colleagues and customers via anticipated feelings of fear, shame, and regret. Salespeople, in other words, are affected by their emotions, but they also are capable of controlling them to their advantage.    Read Full Article Here Verbeke, W., Belschak, F., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2004) …

Genetic and neurological foundations of customer orientation: field and experimental evidence

Genetic and neurological foundations of customer orientation: field and experimental evidence

We explore genetic and neurological bases for customer orientation (CO) and contrast them with sales orientation (SO). Study 1 is a field study that establishes that CO, but not SO, leads to greater opportunity recognition. Study 2 examines genetic bases for CO and finds that salespeople with CO are more likely to have the 7R variant of the DRD4 gene. This is consistent with basic research on dopamine receptor activity in the brain that underlies novelty seeking, the reward function, and risk taking. Study 3 examines the neural basis of CO and finds that salespeople with CO, but not SO, experience greater activation of their mirror neuron systems and neural processes associated with empathy. Managerial and research implications are discussed. “Everybody hates their phone, ” Jobs says, “and that is not a good thing. And there’s an opportunity there.” To Jobs’ perfectionist eyes, phones are broken. Jobs likes things that are broken. It means he can make something that isn’t and sell it to you at a premium price. (“The Apple of Your Ear, ” Time Magazine, Friday January……

Salespersons as Internal Knowledge Brokers and New Products Selling: Discovering the Link to Genetic Makeup

Salespersons as Internal Knowledge Brokers and New Products Selling: Discovering the Link to Genetic Makeup

Managers increasingly realize the importance of involving the sales force in new product development. However, despite recent progress, research on the specific role of the sales force in product innovation-related activities remains scarce. In particular, the importance of a salespersons\' internal knowledge brokering has been neglected. This study develops and empirically validates the concept of internal knowledge brokering behavior and its effect on selling new products and developing new business, and explores whether a salesperson\'s internal brokering qualities are determined by biological traits. The findings reveal that salespeople with the DRD2A1 gene variant engage at significant lower levels of internal knowledge-brokering behavior than salespeople without this gene variant, and as a result are less likely to engage effectively in new product selling. The DRD4 gene variant had no effect on internal knowledge brokering. Management and future research implications are discussed.   Read Full Article Here van den Berg, W. E., Verbeke, W., Bagozzi, R. P., Worm, L., de Jong, A. A., & Nijssen, E. (2014).…

Gaining Access to Intrafirm Knowledge: An Internal Market Perspective on Knowledge Sharing

Gaining Access to Intrafirm Knowledge: An Internal Market Perspective on Knowledge Sharing

This study explores how account managers—employees who operate as entrepreneurial customer boundary spanners—obtain intrafirm knowledge (organizational and expertise knowledge) from diverse colleagues so as to develop tailor-made solutions for their customers. Access to intrafirm knowledge is obtained through two independent knowledge-based exchanges within internal knowledge markets: account managers invest in different activities in order to signal communal and deal-maker reputations. In exchange, colleagues share organizational and expertise knowledge that ultimately contribute to account managers\' performance. The types of knowledge shared by colleagues depend on the reputations of account managers.   Read Full Publication Here Verbeke, W., Belschak, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Wuyts, S. (2011).…

The Role of Emotional Wisdom in Salespersons' Relationships with Colleagues and Customers

The Role of Emotional Wisdom in Salespersons' Relationships with Colleagues and Customers

Emotional wisdom is defined as a set of seven dimensions of basic skills and meta‐narratives concerning how to regulate emotions within specific domains in such a way that the individual\'s and firm\'s well‐being are tied together. Using operationalizations of emotional wisdom for salespersons from a wide range of industries (Study 1) and in automotive dealerships (Study 2), with respect to both colleagues and customers, it is discovered that salespeople who score high on emotional wisdom cope differently with socially challenging situations and achieve better social relationships than those who score low on emotional wisdom.    Read Full Publication Here Bagozzi, R. P., Belschak, F., & Verbeke, W. (2010).…

The role of status and leadership style in sales contests: A natural field experiment

The role of status and leadership style in sales contests: A natural field experiment

This paper addresses the question whether status alone, as compared to a combined financial/status incentive, is strong enough to motivate team members taking part in a retail sales contest to sell more goods to customers. Using a two-phase natural field experiment, we studied the impact of a sales contest on actual sales growth in 102 discount stores. The first experimental phase included a financial/status reward and status-only condition; the second experimental phase included financial/status reward, status-only, and control conditions. Compared to the control condition, the status-only condition had a significant effect on sales volume. Store managers\' leadership style, however, was found to have a moderating effect. Greater sales growth resulted in the financial/status reward condition when store managers had a transformational leadership style. Read Full Article Here Verbeke, W., Bagozzi, R. P., & Belschak, F. D. (2016).…

The Neuroscience and Genetics of Successful Sales People

The Neuroscience and Genetics of Successful Sales People

Willem Verbeke at GSSI 2011. The GSSI (Global Sales Science Institute) is an international organization formed in 2007 by both academics and practitioners involved in sales & sales management. Its aim is to unite the study and practice of sales & sales management around the globe. It brings together scholars and practitioners from across the world to further advance global collaboration in sales research, practice, and education. In particular, the GSSI conference aims to foster a climate of interactive dialogue between sales academics and practitioners. The Neuroscience and Genetics of Successful Sales People …

A Functional Neuro-Anatomical Model of Human Attachment (NAMA): Insights from First- and Second-Person Social Neuroscience

A Functional Neuro-Anatomical Model of Human Attachment (NAMA): Insights from First- and Second-Person Social Neuroscience

Attachment theory, developed by Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby about seventy years ago, has become one of the most influential and comprehensive contemporary psychology theories. It predicts that early social interactions with significant others shape the emergence of distinct self- and other-representations, the latter affecting how we initiate and maintain social relationships across the lifespan. A person’s attachment history will therefore associate with inter-individual differences in emotional and cognitive mechanisms sustaining representations, modeling, and understanding of others on the biological and brain level. This review aims at summarizing the currently available social neuroscience data in healthy participants on how inter-individual differences in attachment associate with brain anatomy and activity across the lifespan, and to integrate these data into an extended and refined functional neuro-anatomical model of human attachment (NAMA). We first propose a new prototypical initial attachment pathway and its derivatives as a function of attachment security, avoidance, and anxiety. Based on these pathways, we suggest a neural attachment system composed of two emotional mentalization modules (aversion and approach) and……

Sales Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter​​​​​​​

Sales Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter​​​​​​​

The goal of this study is to develop and test a conceptualization of sales call anxiety (SCA) on the basis of current insights from the cognitive approach to social anxiety. Sales call anxiety is an irrepressible fear of being negatively evaluated and rejected by a customer, and it is coupled with a desire to avoid undertaking specific functional actions in selling situations. The authors present and test a model of SCA in two selling situations known to have threatening consequences for salespeople: canvasing and closing. The authors find that SCA consists of four components: negative self-evaluations, negative evaluations from customers, awareness of physiological symptoms (e.g., a queasy stomach, shaky voice, blushing), and protective actions (e.g., avoiding eye contact, fiddling with the hands, shunning self-disclosures). The authors show that these dimensions are functions of negative affectivity and anxiety-provoking contextual cues and that they negatively influenced the performance of 189 mortgage sales-people. Read Full Article Here Verbeke, W., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2000) Keywords Sales call anxiety, coping, task concentration, sale perseverance,……

Exploring Association of Opioid Receptor Genes Polymorphism with Positive and Negative Moods using Positive and Negative Affective States Scale

Exploring Association of Opioid Receptor Genes Polymorphism with Positive and Negative Moods using Positive and Negative Affective States Scale

Using a sample of 2, 986 subjects we studied that gene polymorphisms for the OPRM1 (rs1799971, rs17174794), OPRK1 (rs16918875, rs963549) and OPRD1 (rs569356, rs1042114) receptor genes have differential associations with the Positive (PA) and Negative (NA) dimensions of the affect schedule (PANAS) scale (categorized as positive and negative moods). The study finds that OPRM1 gene polymorphisms have both negative and positive associations with the NA and PA dimension of PANAS, respectively. The OPRK1 gene polymorphisms have positive associations with the NA but not with the PA dimension of PANAS. The OPRD1 gene polymorphisms have negative associations with the NA but not with the PA dimension of PANAS. In addition, both NA and PA dimensions of PANAS are associated with acute and chronic depression and anxiety. This genetic approach provides evidence that the three opioid receptors gene polymorphisms have divergent associations with phenotypes related to moods.   Read Full Article Here Masih, J., & J.M.I. Verbeke, W.  (2019). Keywords OPRM1;  OPRK1;  OPRD1; PANAS; Opioid receptor; Moods; Depression; Anxiet…

The role of attachment styles in regulating the effects of dopamine on the behavior of salespersons

The role of attachment styles in regulating the effects of dopamine on the behavior of salespersons

Two classic strategic orientations have been found to pervade the behavior of modern salespersons: a sales orientation (SO) where salespersons use deception or guile to get customers to buy even if they do not need a product, and a customer orientation (CO) where salespersons first attempt to discover the customer\'s needs and adjust their product and selling approach to meet those needs. Study 1 replicates recent research and finds that the Taq A1 variant of the DRD2 gene is not related to either sales or CO, whereas the 7-repeat variant of the DRD4 gene is related to CO but not SO. Study 2 investigates gene × phenotype explanations of orientation of salespersons, drawing upon recent research in molecular genetics and biological/psychological attachment theory. The findings show that attachment style regulates the effects of DRD2 on CO, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher CO for persons with the A2/A2 variant but neither the A1/A2 nor A1/A1 variants. Likewise, attachment style regulates the effects of DRD4 on CO, such that greater avoidant attachment styles lead to higher……

Using the Job Demands-Resources Model To Predict Burnout and Performance.

Using the Job Demands-Resources Model To Predict Burnout and Performance.

The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other-ratings of) performance (N=146). We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion component of burnout, which, in turn, would predict in-role performance (hypothesis 1). In contrast, job resources (e.g., autonomy and social support) were hypothesized to be the most important predictors of extra-role performance, through their relationship with the disengagement component of burnout (hypothesis 2). In addition, we predicted that job resources would buffer the relationship between job demands and exhaustion (hypothesis 3), and that exhaustion would be positively related to disengagement (hypothesis 4). The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, but rejected hypothesis 3. These findings support the JD-R model\'s claim that job demands and job resources initiate two psychological processes, which eventually affect organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).   Read Full Article Here Bakker, A.……

Drivers of sales performance: A contemporary meta-analysis. Have salespeople become knowledge brokers?

Drivers of sales performance: A contemporary meta-analysis. Have salespeople become knowledge brokers?

It has been 25years since the publication of a comprehensive review of the full spectrum of sales-performance drivers. This study takes stock of the contemporary field and synthesizes empirical evidence from the period 1982–2008. The authors revise the classification scheme for sales performance determinants devised by Walker et al. (1977) and estimate both the predictive validity of its sub-categories and the impact of a range of moderators on determinant-sales performance relationships. Based on multivariate causal model analysis, the results make two major observations: (1) Five sub-categories demonstrate significant relationships with sales performance: selling-related knowledge (β = .28), degree of adaptiveness (β = .27), role ambiguity (β = −.25), cognitive aptitude (β = .23) and work engagement (β = .23). (2) These sub-categories are moderated by measurement method, research context, and sales-type variables. The authors identify managerial implications of the results and offer suggestions for further research, including the conjecture that as the world is moving toward a knowledge-intensive economy, salespeople could be functioning as knowledge-brokers. The results seem to back this supposition and indicate how it might inspire future research……

Metabolites and you

Metabolites and you

People leave molecular wakes that may give away their secrets Genes can tell tales about you, from who your ancestors were to how likely you are to develop a range of diseases. And it seems probable that in the future they will tell more: your personality type, perhaps, or your intelligence. For these reasons, many countries have laws limiting what use employers and insurance companies can make of such information. America, for example, has the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which makes it illegal for health insurers and employers to use genetic information to discriminate against customers and employees.   There is much, however, that genes cannot reveal. They are blind to what you eat, how you exercise, how safe the place you live in is, how you unwind at the end of the day and which god you worship. Just as well, you might think, considering how easy it is to obtain samples of dna from saliva, sweat or hair, and how cheap it is becoming to analyse such samples. But it is……

Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor genes is linked to attachment avoidance in young adults

Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor genes is linked to attachment avoidance in young adults

Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure – anxious and/or avoidant – attachment orientations. Since Bowlby’s pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors – what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification – but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited. We for the first time examined relations between intra-individual differences in attachment and epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene promoter in 109 young adult human participants. Our results revealed that attachment avoidance was significantly and specifically associated with increased OXTR and NR3C1 promoter methylation. These findings offer first tentative clues on the possible etiology of attachment avoidance……

Exploring the role of self- and customer-provoked embarrassment in personal selling

Exploring the role of self- and customer-provoked embarrassment in personal selling

We investigate the role that embarrassment, a self-conscious emotion, plays within a selling context. First, we consider what SC-emotions in general are and whether embarrassment might have positive as well as negative impacts on selling behavior. Next, we examine how embarrassment differs from sales call anxiety (SCA). The results show that embarrassment is manifest as an awkward, abashed chagrin provoked either by what a salesperson does that is inappropriate (self-provoked embarrassment) or what a customer does that is inappropriate or offensive to a salesperson (customer-provoked embarrassment). Self- and customer-provoked embarrassment each induce distinct coping responses and both diminish adaptive resource utilization during interactions with customers; this in turn promotes avoidance of future contact with the customer (especially for customer-provoked embarrassment). Implications of the research for practitioners are discussed.   Read Full Article Here Verbeke, W., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2003). Keywords Embarrassment, Self-conscious emotions, Sales call anxiety, Personal selling  …

Genetic and neurological foundations of customer orientation: field and experimental evidence

Genetic and neurological foundations of customer orientation: field and experimental evidence

We explore genetic and neurological bases for customer orientation (CO) and contrast them with sales orientation (SO). Study 1 is a field study that establishes that CO, but not SO, leads to greater opportunity recognition. Study 2 examines genetic bases for CO and finds that salespeople with CO are more likely to have the 7R variant of the DRD4 gene. This is consistent with basic research on dopamine receptor activity in the brain that underlies novelty seeking, the reward function, and risk taking. Study 3 examines the neural basis of CO and finds that salespeople with CO, but not SO, experience greater activation of their mirror neuron systems and neural processes associated with empathy. Managerial and research implications are discussed. KeywordsKnowledge brokering–Opportunity recognition–Genetics–Customer orientation–Neuroscience–Biomarkers–Personal selling–Marketing concept.   Read Full Article Here Bagozzi, R. P., Verbeke, W. J. M. I., van den Berg, W. E., Rietdijk, W. J. R., Dietvorst, R. C., & Worm, L. (2011).   Keywords Biomarkers, Customer orientation, Genetics, Knowledge brokering, Marketing concept, Neuroscience, Opportunity recognition, Personal selling……

Big Data Study for Gluten-Free Foods in India and USA Using Online Reviews and Social Media

Big Data Study for Gluten-Free Foods in India and USA Using Online Reviews and Social Media

Celiac disease, gluten-allergy or gluten-sensitivity is caused due to glutamine protein from the grains like wheat, rye and barley (collectively called gluten). This protein damages the small intestine and causes stomach pain, bloating, weakness etc. Celiac disease, gluten-allergy or gluten-sensitivity has never really been taken seriously in developing countries like India. However, in developed nations like UK, USA, Canada and other parts of Europe, gluten-free foods have become quite popular. With a prevalence rate of about one in 100 - 133 people worldwide, celiac disease is widespread across the globe and life-long consumption of gluten-free food is recommended treatment for this allergy. Apart from celiac-disease patients, gluten-free foods are also consumed by health conscious people for weight management and high protein diet and by the patients for diabetes, autism and food allergies. Apart from gluten-free flour, biscuits, cookies and snacks, product innovations like gluten-free beers are becoming very popular. Big data including online blogs, articles, and reviews have played a major role in increased sales of gluten-free foods. Thus, analysis……

Immune System Function and its Relation to Depression

Immune System Function and its Relation to Depression

Using data of 2, 057 participants in the Dutch Lifelines database we explore the relationship between innate immune system response and acute (depressed for 2 weeks) or chronic (depressed for 2 years) depression in people. We then explore how riding a bicycle, a popular sport and mode of transport in the Netherlands, moderates this relationship. Focusing on acute depression, we found it associated with higher eosinophil, neutrophil and basophilic granulocyte cell counts but not with monocyte cell count. Increased cell count in innate immune responses in the case of depressed people comes from the fact that depression increases pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) which are secreted by innate immune system cells. However, when a depressed person regularly rides a bike, the cell counts of both eosinophil and neutrophil granulocyte increased to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and IL-10 which help to reduce the effects of depression. Chronic depression is associated with increased cell counts of basophilic, eosinophil, neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. Again, regular cycling increases cell counts of……

When intelligence is (dys)functional for achieving sales performance

When intelligence is (dys)functional for achieving sales performance

Using two samples of salespeople, the authors investigate how a combination of general mental ability (GMA) and specific skills and capabilities (social competence and thinking styles) enables salespeople to reach their sales goals. The study finds evidence for an interaction between GMA and social competence. When combined with high social competence, high GMA leads to the highest sales performance; when combined with low social competence, high GMA leads to the lowest sales performance. In addition, the authors find interaction effects between GMA and a judicial thinking style. Salespeople with a high GMA have the most potential for attaining high levels of sales performance when combined with specific skills; when salespeople with a high GMA lack these skills, they may become the firm\'s worst performers. Read Full Publication   Verbeke, W. J., Belschak, F. D., Bakker, A. B., & Dietz, B. (2008b). Keywords cognitive ability, general mental ability, job performance, knowledge-based marketing, sales personnel, selling, shaping, social aspects, social competence, social skills, work skills…

Evolutionary-shaped goal orientation in Homo sapiens

Evolutionary-shaped goal orientation in Homo sapiens

How life sciences contribute to a better understanding of salespeople as knowledge brokers Life sciences uses the Latin name Homo sapiens to describe humans, an animal species. First, we discuss how “popular beliefs” about the brain have inhibited the progress of life science applications in the field of selling. Subsequently, we present the Tinbergen’s evolutionary perspective of life sciences and use “ultimate” and “proximate” explanations to understand the salesperson’s main goal of becoming a knowledge broker. First, an ultimate explanation describes how the Homo sapiens evolved to acquire a big brain through natural selection processes, which led to the emergence of multiple cultures. This evoked a runaway selection of genes affecting brain functioning called “cultural drive hypothesis.” The big brain shapes people’s goal orientation and leads to better cooperation and exact copying of knowledge. Both are constitutive for the exponential emergence of innovations within and across cultures through multiple generations. Second, the proximate view explains how, for example, neural-endocrine mechanisms modulate knowledge brokering. We explore five hard-wired processes associated with a salesperson’s skill in……

Verkopers als kennisbrokers

Verkopers als kennisbrokers

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Aanjager van verkoopprestaties: thought leadership
Vissen hebben een complexe persoonlijkheid

Vissen hebben een complexe persoonlijkheid

26/09/2017 Vissen zijn geen kudde­dieren die zomaar in school reageren op veranderingen in hun omgeving. Onderzoek met regenboogvisjes heeft aangetoond dat ze vrij complexe persoonlijkheden hebben.   Toen de vissen in een voor hen vreemde watertank geplaatst werden, reageerden ze verschillend op de stresssituatie: een deel van de vissen probeerde zich te verstoppen, een ander deel probeerde te ontsnappen en nog andere vissen verkenden voor­zichtig de omgeving. Volgens de vorsers behield elke vis bovendien zijn ­eigen persoonlijkheid, ­wanneer hij in een andere stresssituatie geplaatst werd.   “Dat kan erop wijzen dat de kenmerken aan ­specifieke genen gebonden zijn”, zegt onderzoeker Alistair Wilson, die de smaak te pakken heeft. “Het is de bedoeling om nu meer inzicht te ­krijgen in de evolutieprocessen en na te gaan hoe verschillende gedragingen kunnen standhouden terwijl de soorten evolueren”, zegt hij. Bron: http://www.nieuwsblad.be/cnt/dmf20170925_03095785…

Rol van hechtingsstijlen op tevredenheid met het leven
De rol van de wijze van hechting op gedrag van verkopers
Waarom verkopers angst hebben om te verkopen
Hoe Machiavellians denken
Het verband tussen geluksgevoel en de wijze van hechting
Van het ijsbergprincipe naar de ijsbergillusie

Van het ijsbergprincipe naar de ijsbergillusie

Men hoort het wel vaker: mensen beslissen voor 85% onbewust en voor 15% bewust. Wij hebben nooit begrepen waar deze gedachte vandaan komt. Stel je voor dat je een auto gaat kopen en je komt de autodealer binnen. Vervolgens voel je iets en koop je gelijk de auto als je iets positiefs voelt. Dit klinkt misschien als een fijne en intelligente gedachte maar het strookt geheel niet met de werkelijkheid: als mensen beslissingen nemen omtrent een auto denken ze vooral na; ze besteden immers 30.000 of 40.000 euro en dat doet men niet zomaar. Het principe dat mensen voor 85% onbewust en 15% bewust beslissen wordt vaak samengevat in onderstaande afbeelding. Zoals het gezegde luidt: “een beeld zegt meer dan duizend woorden”.   Waarom is deze metafoor zo aantrekkelijk? Vooral goeroes die vaak publiekelijk spreken voor ondernemingen komen door deze metafoor te gebruiken erg geleerd over. Natuurlijk zit er enige waarheid in deze metafoor: onze hersenen zijn evolutionair geprogrammeerd om snel en effectief te reageren op mogelijke gevaarlijke alsook prettige……

Individuele verschillen van emotionele besmetting van verkopers: het effect op prestaties en burnout
Welkom bij de epigenetische revolutie

Welkom bij de epigenetische revolutie

03 maart 2018 De eerste keer dat de term epigenetica opdook in de economische wetenschappen was in het jaar 2007, toen Nobelprijswinnaar James Heckman het artikel: “The economics, technology, and neuroscience of human capability formation (2007)”schreef. Heckman wijst vooral op de invloed die de opvoeding door de ouders of de vroege sociale omgeving hebben op het ontwikkelen van intellectuele en emotionele vaardigheden. Heckman stelt dat men de jeugdjaren kan beschouwen als “critical period”, de tijd waarin het functioneren van de hersenconnectiviteit wordt gevormd. Als deze connectiviteit eenmaal is gevormd kan die moeilijk meer veranderen en heeft invloed op het gedrag in het algemeen of op specifieke domeinen als ondernemingen. Maar wat is opvoeding eigenlijk en wat heeft epigenetica daarmee te maken? Maar nog belangrijker voor de lezer: wat is epigenetica? Ik zal deze vragen stapsgewijs beantwoorden. Wat is genetica: Voor ik het begrip epigenetica uitleg is het goed kort te vertellen wat genetisch onderzoek in essentie betekent. Ik vertel dit graag aan de hand van het werk dat we de……

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